Difference between revisions of "Ballot"

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[[File:Ballot types example.png|thumb|888x888px|An example of the four main ballot types (choose-one, approval, ranked, and rated).]]
A '''ballot''' is a voter's expression of preference among the candidates. There are four main ways to do this in the context of voting methods:
A '''ballot''' is a voter's expression of preference among the candidates. There are four main ways to do this in the context of voting methods: [[Choose-one voting|choose-one]] a.k.a. [[Single-mark ballot|single-mark ballots]] (you mark one candidate that you support out of all candidates; these are often considered as "[[Bloc voting|choose up to as many candidates as there are seats to be elected]]" a.k.a bloc voting ballots because when there are, say, two winners to be chosen, usually voters are allowed to mark up to two candidates, etc. [[Cumulative voting]] ballots can be considered a variation.), [[Approval ballot|Approval ballots]] (mark all the candidates that you support), [[Ranked ballot|ranked ballots]] (rank the candidates in order of preference: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. Some ranked ballots allow a voter to give multiple candidates the same rank to indicate no preference between those candidates.) and [[Ratings ballot|rated ballots]] (you rate the candidates on a scale, generally starting from 0, going up to any value, often 5 or 10. Usually only certain in-between values are allowed i.e. if the scale is from 0 to 10, it usually isn't allowed for someone to give a rating of, say, 9.35).
 
- [[Choose-one voting|choose-one]] a.k.a. [[Single-mark ballot|single-mark ballots]] (you mark one candidate that you support out of all candidates; these are often considered as "[[Bloc voting|choose up to as many candidates as there are seats to be elected]]" a.k.a bloc voting ballots because when there are, say, two winners to be chosen, usually voters are allowed to mark up to two candidates, etc. [[Cumulative voting]] ballots can be considered a variation.),
 
- [[Approval ballot|Approval ballots]] (mark all the candidates that you support),
 
- [[Ranked ballot|ranked ballots]] (rank the candidates in order of preference: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. Some ranked ballots allow a voter to give multiple candidates the same rank to indicate no preference between those candidates.) and
 
- [[Ratings ballot|rated ballots]] (you rate the candidates on a scale, generally starting from 0, going up to any value, often 5 or 10. Usually only certain in-between values are allowed i.e. if the scale is from 0 to 10, it usually isn't allowed for someone to give a rating of, say, 9.35).
 
There are several intersections between the various ballot types. For example, the information contained on an Approval ballot can also be found from a ranked or rated ballot if an [[Approval threshold|approval threshold]] is utilized, and in fact, an [[Approval voting#Ballot types|Approval ballot]] is itself a type of rated ballot where the only allowed ratings are "disapprove" and "approve" (0 and 1). A choose-one ballot is itself an Approval ballot with the restriction of only marking one candidate, and can also be thought of as a ranked or rated ballot where only the candidate(s) ranked 1st/rated highest are treated as supported. A ranked ballot can be (at least partially) reconstructed from any of the other three ballot types i.e. if a voter scored one candidate higher than another (or marked one candidate but not another), then it is known for certain that that voter would also rank that candidate higher than the other.
Two rated ballots that use different scales can be converted to each other. For example, if one voter gave a candidate a 5 out of 10 and another voter gave a candidate a 3 out of 7, the 5 out of 10 can be interpreted as a 3.5 out of 7, and the 3 out of 7 as a 4.2857 out of 10. In general, all rated ballots can be thought of as approximations of (and transformable into) a scale from 0 to 1 (or 0% to 100%), with 0 being no support and 1 being full support.
 
=== Choose-one ballot ===
A '''single-mark ballot''' or '''plurality ballot''' is a type of ballot in which voters can only make a single mark next to one candidate. It is most commonly-used for [[First Past the Post electoral system|first-past-the-post]] elections, but also for [[Runoff voting]], [[Asset voting]], [[Random ballot]], etc. See [[:Category:Single-mark ballot voting methods|Category:Single-mark ballot voting methods]]. Most of these methods can also be modified to work with a [[Cumulative voting|cumulative voting]] ballot.
 
== Voting methods that use single-mark ballots[edit | edit source] ==
From [[:Category:Single-mark ballot voting methods|Category:Single-mark ballot voting methods]]:
 
* [[First Past the Post electoral system]]
* [[Asset voting]]
* [[Delegated proportional judgment]]
* [[Direct Party and Representative Voting]]
* [[Runoff voting]]
* [[Random ballot]]
* [[Additional Member System]]
* [[Sequential Asset Voting]]
* [[Anti-plurality voting]]
 
== External links[edit | edit source] ==
 
* Declaration of Election-Method Reform Advocates: Ban Single-Mark Ballots
 
==Notes==