Difference between revisions of "Electowiki:Electoral systems"

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'''Voting systems''' or '''election methods''' are abstract methods for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members.  Voting is often seen as the defining feature of democracy, and is best known for its use in elections — but it can also be used to award prizes, to select between different plans of action, or as a means for computer programs to evaluate which solution is best for a complex problem.
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{{Wikipedia|Category:Electoral systems}}
A key property of voting systems is that, because they are algorithms, they must be formally defined.  Consensus, for example, which is sometimes put forward as a voting system, is more properly a broad way of working with others, analogous to democracy or anarchy.
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{{TopNav|:Category:Electoral systems}}
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An '''electoral system''' (also referred to as an '''election method''' or '''voting system''') is a system for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members, or more generally to find society's preference among all the candidates (1st place, 2nd place, etc.).  Voting is often seen as the defining feature of democracy, and is best known for its use in public elections — but it can also be used to award prizes, to select between different plans of action, or as a means for computer programs to evaluate which solution is best for a complex problem.  
  
== Aspects of voting systems ==
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See '''[[:Category:Electoral systems]]''' for the category associated with this article. This category on electowiki corresponds to "electoral systems" category on [[English Wikipedia]] (found here: "[[wikipedia:Category:Electoral systems]]").
  
=== The ballot ===
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== Criteria ==
Different voting systems have different [[:Category:Ballot type|types of ballots]] for allowing individuals to express their preferences.  In [[ranked ballot]] or "preference" voting systems, like [[Instant-runoff voting]] or the [[Borda count]], voters order the list of options from most to least preferred.  In [[Cardinal Ratings]], voters rate each option separately.
 
  
=== District (constituency) size ===
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=== Criteria in evaluating electoral systems ===
 
 
A voting system may select only one option, in which case it is called a "single winner system", or it may select multiple options, for example candidates to fill an assembly or alternative possible decisions on the measure the ballot posed.  Some countries, like Israel, fill their entire parliament using a single multiple-winner district ([[constituency]]), while others, like Ireland or Belgium, break up their national elections into smaller, multiple-winner districts, and yet others, like the United States or the United Kingdom, hold only single-winner elections.  Some systems, like the [[Additional member system]], embed smaller districts within larger ones.
 
 
 
=== Party-list systems ===
 
 
 
In [[party-list proportional representation]] systems, candidates can be aligned with, or nominated by, [[political party|political parties]], and the party's list of candidates plays a functional role within the system.  These parties may in turn be aligned with other parties, to form [[coalition]]s, which can play roles beyond those played by the party.  These systems are designed to ensure [[proportional representation]], the idea that the candidates selected from a given party (or, in non-party-list systems, informal grouping) should be in proportion to the votes cast for that party.  Some of these systems, however, have [[election threshold]]s--minimum numbers of votes cast for a party to win any seats.  The purpose of an election threshold is generally to keep very small parties from participating in a parliament, in order to maintain stability of governments.
 
 
 
=== None of the above and write-ins ===
 
 
 
In some voting systems, voters may choose to select none of the candidates (or poll options), by voting for a "None of the above" option. If this option wins, the election fails, all candidates or poll options are excluded from a subsequent election.  Alternately, some elections allow voters to write in the name of a person (or of the poll option) not on the ballot as their option.
 
 
 
=== Candidate Withdrawal option ===
 
 
 
Allows candidates to withdraw from contention after the votes are cast, to avoid being spoilers or to foil manipulative voting strategies. See [[Candidate withdrawal option]].
 
 
 
== Criteria in evaluating voting systems ==
 
  
 
Various [[:Category:voting system criteria|criteria]] are used in evaluating voting systems.  However, it is impossible for one voting system to pass all criteria in common use. For example, [[Arrow's impossibility theorem]] demonstrates that many  desirable criteria are mutually inconsistent.
 
Various [[:Category:voting system criteria|criteria]] are used in evaluating voting systems.  However, it is impossible for one voting system to pass all criteria in common use. For example, [[Arrow's impossibility theorem]] demonstrates that many  desirable criteria are mutually inconsistent.
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*[[:Category:Voting theory|Voting theory]]
 
*[[:Category:Voting theory|Voting theory]]
 
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[[Category:Electoral systems]]

Latest revision as of 06:39, 15 June 2020

Wikipedia has an article on:
parent: Category:Electoral systems


An electoral system (also referred to as an election method or voting system) is a system for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members, or more generally to find society's preference among all the candidates (1st place, 2nd place, etc.). Voting is often seen as the defining feature of democracy, and is best known for its use in public elections — but it can also be used to award prizes, to select between different plans of action, or as a means for computer programs to evaluate which solution is best for a complex problem.

See Category:Electoral systems for the category associated with this article. This category on electowiki corresponds to "electoral systems" category on English Wikipedia (found here: "wikipedia:Category:Electoral systems").

Criteria[edit | edit source]

Criteria in evaluating electoral systems[edit | edit source]

Various criteria are used in evaluating voting systems. However, it is impossible for one voting system to pass all criteria in common use. For example, Arrow's impossibility theorem demonstrates that many desirable criteria are mutually inconsistent.

See also[edit | edit source]

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