Proportionate representation: Difference between revisions

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In Canada, Proportionate Representation is defined and ensured in each of the constitutions. Specifically, it is ensured that the Provinces have Proportionate Representation of the provincial level in Section 52 and 42 of the constitution act of 1867 and 1982, respectively. These constitutions are the first known use of this term in this context. In Canada, this means that a [[regional system]] is required at least on the Provincial level in Canada so that the number of seats for each province is proportionate to the number of citizens in each province. Proportionate Representation is defined such that Balanced Representation is directly implied. Recall Balanced Representation is that each member represents a similar number of citizens. It is not guaranteed by Partisan Systems or Proportional Representation.
==In Regional Systems==
In [[regional systems]] where members are elects to represent each region the issue is straight forward. If the population size is equal in each region the results are said to be proportionate. The issue then moves to a discussion of the granularity, ie how many representatives per region.
There are two ways that Proportionate Representation can be purposely altered. The first is an attempt to improve it. A good example of this is the election of leaders for the Conservative party of Canada. This is held through a general election by all party members using [[Instant-runoff voting]]. Since it is known that the number of party members in each riding is not equal it is not expected that the the outcome would be different if each voter participated in that riding. To improve [[proportionate representation]] the ballots from each region are weighted according to the number of party voters in the region.
The inverse example of this is with the [[electoral college]] which purposely breaks [[Proportionate Representation]] to give higher representation to more sparsely populated regions.
==In Partisan systems==
In a partisan system several members of parliament are elected to represent parties and no region. In a [[Party List]] system [[Proportionate representation]] is at is worst because all regions have no representation. A [[Mixed Member Proportional]] system with half the members elected for regions and the other half for parties would represent the mid point between the optimal with a single member regional system and the worst with [[Party List]]. Additionally, such a systems would also have half the granularity of the [[Proportionate Representation]]