# Lowndes method

Lowndes method is a apportionment method for proportional representation, first proposed by South Carolina representative William Lowndes in 1822. In this method, states or parties are divided by Hare quota, and then the remaining seats to the states/parties that have the highest seat to inhabitant ratio. Similarly to largest remainder methods, no party can get more than one remaining seat. No country currently uses this method to allocate its seats.

## Example

In 1790, the U.S. had 15 states. For the purpose of allocating seats in the House of Representatives, the state populations were as follows:

StatePopulation
Virginia630 560
Massachusetts475 327
Pennsylvania432 879
North Carolina353 523
New York331 589
Maryland278 514
Connecticut236 841
South Carolina206 236
New Jersey179 570
New Hampshire141 822
Vermont85 533
Georgia70 835
Kentucky68 705
Rhode Island68 446
Delaware55 540
Total3 615 920

Suppose that there were to be 60 seats in the House.

State Quotient People per seat
Virginia 10 63,056
Massachusetts 7 67,903.9
Pennsylvania 7 61,839.9
North Carolina 5 70,704.6
New York 5 66,317.8
Maryland 4 69,628.5
Connecticut 3 78,947
South Carolina 3 68,745
New Jersey 2 89785
New Hampshire 2 70,911
Vermont 1 85,533
Georgia 1 70,835
Kentucky 1 68,705
Rhode Island 1 68,446
Delaware 0 N/A
Total 52

Since Delaware has 0 seats after the Hare calculation, they would have no seats, however since every state is required to have at least one seat, we award them the first seat, After that, the states with the highest people-per-seat ratio are awarded, which are New Jersey, Vermont, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Georgia, North Carolina, and Maryland .