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In game theory, a voter's strategy is any of the options which they choose in a setting where the outcome depends not only on their own actions but on the actions of others.[1]

Tactical voting

See also: Tactical voting

In all non-dictatorial electoral systems, some form of tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter misrepresents their sincere preferences in order to gain a more favorable outcome. Any minimally useful voting system has some form of tactical voting, as shown by the Arrow's theorem, Gibbard's theorem, and the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem. However, the type of tactical voting and the extent to which it affects the timbre of the campaign and the results of the election vary dramatically from one voting system to another.


  1. w:Ben Polak Game Theory: Lecture 1 Transcript ECON 159, 5 September 2007, w:Open Yale Courses.