Edward B. Foley

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Edward B. Foley (also known as Ned Foley)[1][2] is an American lawyer, law professor, election law scholar, and former Ohio Solicitor General.[3] He is the theorist of the blue shift, a phenomenon in American politics in which in-person votes overstate overall percentage of votes for the Republican Party (whose color is red), while provisional ballots (which are counted after election day) tend to overstate overall percentage of votes for the Democratic Party (whose color is blue). When the provisional votes are counted after the election, there is often a shift in totals toward the Democrat, or blue, candidate.[4][5]

  1. "Members". American Law Institute. Retrieved 2022-11-09. Edward (Ned) B. Foley
  2. "Prof. Edward B. Foley". Federalist Society. Retrieved 2022-11-09. Professor Foley (known as “Ned”)
  3. {{Cite web|title=Edward Foley |url=https://ucom.osu.edu/for-media/faculty-experts/a-m/foley-edward.html%7Caccess-date=August 15, 2020]}
  4. Li, Yimeng; Hyun, Michelle; Alvarez, R. Michael (2020). "Why Do Election Results Change After Election Day? The "Blue Shift" in California Elections". American Government and Politics. doi:10.33774/apsa-2020-s43xx. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  5. Wegman, Jesse (August 11, 2020). "Opinion | Vote Counts Change. Please Don't Panic". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 15, 2020.