A plurality (or "relative majority") is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. Some elections or types of votes require merely a plurality, while others require a runoff to produce a majority.
For example, if there are three candidates A, B, and C, with A having 40% of the votes, B 30%, and C 30%, then A has a plurality (more votes than all others), but not a majority (which would be at least 50% + 1).
The term plurality is also often used to categorize voting methods that operate by looking mainly at voters' 1st choices. Choose-one FPTP voting and STV fall into this category, as do the plurality-runoff voting methods.
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