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Probability sometimes appears in the context of voting theory when discussing who should win an election. When there is a tie, multiple candidates may have a positive probability of winning.

As a result, some voting method criteria are/must be defined with respect to candidates having or not having positive probabilities of winning, rather than winning or not winning. For example, the plurality criterion can be defined either as "B must not win" or "A's probability of winning must be at least as good as B's" (see also W:Plurality criterion).