None of the above

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None of the above (NOTA) is a ballot choice in some jurisdictions or organizations, placed so as to allow the voter to indicate his disapproval with all of the candidates on the ballot.

There are three recognized varieties of NOTA in a single winner plurality election:

  • Binding NOTA, in which a voter may choose a vote for a candidate or a vote for NOTA. If NOTA obtains a plurality, then the election is voided and another method is used to determine the outcome. Possible methods include the holding of a by-election, filling the seat by appointment, re-opening nominations, or leaving the office vacant.
  • Non-Binding NOTA (Washington model), in which the voter may vote for any one candidate, or not vote for a candidate at all. In addition, the voter may cast a vote for NOTA. The candidate with the most votes wins; the "NOTA" choice may not "win" the election. This option does not permit voters to nullify the slate of candidates, but does allow voters to express a mandate for the candidate for the office.
  • Non-Binding NOTA (Nevada model), in which the voter may choose a vote for a candidate or a vote for NOTA. The candidate with the most votes wins; the "NOTA" choice may not "win" the election, and is only a repository for "protest" votes.