United States Bill of Rights

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The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution and written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution are reserved to each of the United States or the people. The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those in earlier documents, especially the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776), as well as the Northwest Ordinance (1787),[1] the English Bill of Rights (1689), and Magna Carta (1215).[2]

Due largely to the efforts of Representative James Madison, who studied the deficiencies of the Constitution pointed out by anti-federalists and then crafted a series of corrective proposals, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment on September 25, 1789, and submitted them to the states for ratification. Contrary to Madison's proposal that the proposed amendments be incorporated into the main body of the Constitution (at the relevant articles and sections of the document), they were proposed as supplemental additions (codicils) to it.[3] Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, and became Amendments One through Ten of the Constitution. Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5, 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is a constitutional amendment still pending before the states.

Although Madison's proposed amendments included a provision to extend the protection of some of the Bill of Rights to the states, the amendments that were finally submitted for ratification applied only to the federal government. The door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment. Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments.[4]

There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence. One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

See also


  1. "The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and its Effects" (Archived here: archiveforthis on September 22, 2020) by Dan Bryan, April 8, 2012, at American History USA website (retrieved September 22, 2020).
  2. "Bill of Rights". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Archived from the original on February 25, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  3. England, Trent; Spalding, Matthew. "Essays on Article V: Amendments". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on July 1, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  4. "Bill of Rights – Facts & Summary". History.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2015.